Mountains

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Mapiri Akuluakulu (German Riesengebirge, Karkonosze ya ku Poland) ndizoti dziko lonse la Czech ndi Highlands lili ndi mapiri. Dzikoli lili kumpoto chakum'maŵa kwa Bohemia (mbali ya kumadzulo ili m'dera la Liberec, mbali ya kum'maŵa kwa Královéhradecký) ndi kum'mwera kwa gawo la Polish la Silesia. Pachimake apamwamba ndi Sněžka Giant (1603 m). Malinga ndi mbiri kusamala Giant lodziwika bwino mzimu Krakonoš. Mwa malo otchuka kwambiri phiri ku Czech Republic.

Onse lonse phiri kuphatikizapo Giant anali kale mu masiku amakedzana anafotokoza monga Sudetenland, amene mwina dzina la Acelt chiyambi (zambiri likumasuliridwa phiri Boar) kapena Balkan chiyambi (kutanthauziridwa monga Mbuzi Mountain). Ptolemy (za 85-165) ntchito masiku ano Sudetenland maina Sudetayle (ndi miyala Mountains) ndi Askiburgion (makamaka Mountains, pafupi mudziwo Askiburgium vandalism, mwina Lusatian Mountains, kuphatikizapo m'mapiri). Dio Cassius mu 3. Zaka za zana zidagwiritsa ntchito dzina lakuti Vandalski Mapiri a Askiburgion. Pambuyo Ptolemaic mapu anabwera ku Czech Republic Bohuslav Balbin ndi Pavel thanthwe kuchokera pamwamba ntchito dzina ukugwirizana Sudetenland kwa gulu lonse (17. Century).

Mapiri a Krkonose okha amatchedwa Forest Bohemian M'makalata Achi Russia mu 1095, ndi Snowflake ku 1380 amatchedwa Snow Mountains.

M'mapiri dzina poyambirira ankatanthauza onse Kolo lero okwezeka ndi kukatentha kapena Kokrháč. M'pamene m'mapiri (mmodzi chachikazi ", ndi" m'mapiri) kuti lokwera pamaoneka 1492 mu zolemba za magawano malo Štěpanice pa Wallenstein ndi Jilemnický mbali 1499 ndiye m'zochita Vladislav II., The wamkulu kupulumuka mapu dzina kuti ntchito Nicholas Klaudyan mu 1518. Wenceslaus Hajek mu Nkhani wake wa 1541 ntchito dzina la Czech ndi Silesia m'mapiri.

Umboni woyamba wa kutambasuka kwa dzina ku phiri lonse ndi ku 1517 pamene mutu ndi Krkonošské mapiri, m'mapiri lolembedwa womuyenerera mdierekezi chithunzi. Chimphona dzina Short anali woyamba zalembedwa mu chaka 1601. dzinali nthawi zambiri ankaona kuti ndilochokera wakale Asilavo m'munsi "khosi" kapena "cracker" kutanthauza nyenyezi yaing'ono paini kapena m'phiri m'nkhalango, Josef Jungmann likugwirizana ndi dzina la Germany kapena Acelt fuko Corconti kapena Korkontoi, anatchula Ptolemy, ndi kopanda kuti otchulidwa mapiri Asciburgius anali ofanana lero m'mapiri (Korkontoi alibe moyo kulikonse pafupi magwero a Vistula, kapena m'malo Beskydy). Kafukufuku kutanthauzira za chiyambi cha dzina la Proto maziko, kutanthauza "miyala otsetsereka munda miyala" asankhepo kugwirizana ndi dzina la Chiyukireniya Gorgany mapiri ku East Carpathians.

German ofanana (Czech ndi mbali Silesia pa mapiri anali mpaka 1945 kuli anthu ambiri a ku Germany) ndi tanthauzo m'mapiri (Riesengebirge, m'mapiri mu English) likuchokera ku dzina Risenberg, amene Agricola (Georgius?) Mu 1546 chilemba chilimwe. Yambiri Riesengebirge phiri lonse woyamba wolembedwa chaka 1571.

Maziko a mapangidwe a zamoyo ali ndi mapepala oyamba a crystalline ndi miyala yamakedzana ya metamorphic (clamp). Kumadera akummawa kwa mapiri, miyala yamakono ndi yosawerengeka. Kale crystallinikum imalowa m'malo ena ndi Krkonoše-Jizerský pluton (granite). Mphepete mwa madzi otchedwa quaters anali akadakali ndi madzi oundana omwe amadziwika kumidzi. Panali mitundu iwiri ya ma glaciers. Yoyamba inali yotentha yamapiri ndipo yachiwiri inali mtundu wa Scandinavia. Dera lalikulu (dera la Mdyerekezi, ndi zina zotero) limapereka mazenera ake kumalo ake. Kuti tipeze lingaliro labwino, titha kuyang'ana pa icebergs ku Scandinavia zomwe zimasonyeza mmene zilili m'mapiri akhoza kuyang'ana. Chitsanzo chabwino kwambiri cha ntchito zachilengedwe ndi chitsanzo cha Mine ya Elbe kapena Giant Mine, yomwe ili chigwa cha mazira. Zina zazing'ono za glacial ndi kari glacial (v m'mapiri Karya amadziwika kuti "dzenje"). Ndiyenera kutchula Kotelní jámy ndi dzenje la Snow ku Poland. Kary ndi imodzi mwa zinthu zamtengo wapatali zomwe tingachite m'mapiri chifukwa ndizosowa kwambiri m'mapiri a Giant. Ntchito ya Cryogenic v m'mapiri ndikofunikira kutchula, mwachitsanzo, nyanja yayikulu yamtunda (mapiri okwera) kapena nyumba zamatabwa zamadzi.

Kumadera a mapiri a Giant pali mitundu yambiri ya zomera ndi zinyama. V m'mapiri ndi malo akuluakulu pamwamba pa nkhalango yaikulu ku Czech Republic. Pamwamba pa 1200-1300 mu lamba la nkhalango imatha apa. Kumtunda ndiko chivomezi, msilikali, mwala ndi nyanjayi. Izi zimakhala zosawerengeka kwambiri zotchedwa arc-alpine tundra. M'madera ena timapeza ngakhale nkhumba za peat. Mtundu wa spruce wapachiyambi unasokonezeka ndi zotsatira za mpweya. M'malo otsika, beech ndi spruce monocultures zimakula. Malacofauna a mapiri a Giant ali ndi mitundu ya 90 ya zipolopolo.

Pa dera la m'mapiri lili m'mapiri National Park (KRNAP) dera 36 400 ha, amene anatsimikizidwa chaka 1963, ndi Karkonoski Park Narodowy (KPN), anakhazikitsidwa mu 1959. Zoni zoteteza za malo osungirako ali kumbali Czech m'dera 18 400 ha. Mapiri alinso kuyambira 1992 amgwirizano Biosphere Reserve kulengeza United Nations maphunziro, sayansi ndi chikhalidwe Organization (Malo gawo Czech wa 54 800 ha). KRNAP inagawidwa kukhala I., II. ndi III. mabacteria zoteteza momwe Zone Ine ndi lofunika kwambiri ndi imagwera pa lotsatira mode chitetezo. Izi zikutanthauza, mwachitsanzo. The miyeso ndi ine II. Chigawo sichiloledwa kuchoka kunja kwa alendo otchuka ndi maulendo apanyanja. Pa dera la m'mapiri ndi dzina lakuti Mbalame Area ndi Zofunika Mbalame Area, lomwe lili lonse biosphere malo, motero. Paki yamapiri kuphatikizapo malo oteteza.

Mapiri a Giant akuchokera ku nyengo ya mapiri aatali kwambiri ku Czech Republic. Mphepete yomwe ili pamwamba pa mzere wa 1400 imatha kuyerekezedwa ndi Green Coast. Kutentha kukusiyana makamaka ndi kumtunda. Mwachitsanzo, kutentha kwakukulu ku Trutnov ndi 6,8 madigiri Celsius, pamene ku Sněžka, malo ozizira kwambiri a Krkonoše, kutentha kwapachaka ndi 0,2 madigiri Celsius. Pa nthawi yomweyo, malo ozizira kwambiri ku Czech Republic. Kuchuluka kwa mphepo m'mapiri a Giant kumadalira kutalika ndi kutsetsereka. Chowonadi ndi chakuti malo opita kumapiri a Western Giant ali ndi mvula yambiri kuposa malo omwe ali kummawa kwa mapiri a Giant chifukwa chaka chakumadzulo chakumadzulo kwa dziko la Czech Republic. Mvula yambiri imakhala mu miyezi ya chilimwe nthawi yamkuntho ndipo mvula imagwa mu March, koma chifukwa cha chipale chofewa kwambiri. Ngakhale kuti mapiri a Giant ndiwo mapiri okwera kwambiri ku Czech Republic, sizikuwoneka kuti ndi zovuta kwambiri chifukwa mapiri a Krkonoše ali pamvula ya Jizera Mountains. Pamphepete mwake, kuchuluka kwa mvula kuli pafupi 1300 mm / chaka, pamene m'chigwacho chingakhale cha 1500 mm / chaka. Gawo lina la mvula ndi chipale chofewa, chomwe chili mbali yaikulu ya mapiri a Giant. Kawirikawiri, tsiku la chipale chofewa choyamba mumapiri a Krkonoše silinganenedwe, chifukwa pamapiri imatha chisanu pafupifupi chaka chilichonse. Chivundikiro cha chipale chofewa chili pamtunda kuyambira pakati pa November mpaka May. Kukula kwakukulu kwa chisanu kumapezeka pamtunda wotsetsereka (Mapu a dziko lomwe chipale chofewa chimakwera kufika mamita 15!). Nthawi zambiri m'mapiri a Giant mphepo yamkuntho imawombera (mphepo yamkuntho yothamanga ku Sněžka 216 km / h).

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